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    portugal history:

    The History of Portugal is that of an ancient European nation, whose present origins go back to the Early Middle Ages, that ascended to a great world power in the Age of Discoveries with its vast Empire. Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status first through the loss of its military and naval power due to the military disaster of Alcacer-Kibir, and shortly thereafter its fleet, which had had been incorporated into the Spanish Armada so the country was unable to defend its interests overseas. It was further weakened later with the destruction of much of the capital, Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of its largest colony Brazil. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; however, the Republic was unable to solve the country's problems, amid corruption, repression of the Church and near bankruptcy of State, and in 1926, a military coup installed a dictatorship that would only come to an end in 1974, when a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO, OECD and EFTA and entered the European Community (now the European Union) in 1986.
    Contents
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    * 1 "Portugal"
    * 2 Early history
    * 3 Roman Lusitania
    * 4 Germanic kingdoms
    * 5 Moorish rule and the Reconquista
    * 6 Affirmation of Portugal
    * 7 Discoveries Odyssey: Glory of the Empire
    * 8 Decline of the Empire
    * 9 Pombaline Era
    * 10 Crises of the Nineteenth Century
    * 11 The First Republic
    * 12 New State (Estado Novo)
    * 13 The Third Republic
    * 14 Timeline
    * 15 See also
    * 16 External links

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    "Portugal"

    Portugal's name derives from the Roman name Portus Cale. Cale was the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal. Around 200 BCE, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale. During the Middle Ages, the region around Cale became known by the Visigoths as Portucale. Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, the term "Portugale" was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho, the Minho flowing along what would become the northern border between Portugal and Spain.

    Some historians believe that the "Cale" part of Portucale derived from the Greek word Kalles ("beautiful"), referring to the beauty of the Douro valley where ancient Greek pioneers chose to settle. Other historians claim that the earliest settlers in the region were Phoenician and that the name Cale was derived from the Phoenician languages of those who settled along the Portuguese coast in the pre-Roman period. Others say that Cale is derived from the Callaeci people (see below) who lived in the region.

    In any case, the Portu part of the name Portucale would become Porto, the modern name for the city located on the site of the ancient city of Cale at the mouth of the Douro River. And port would become the name of the wine from the Douro Valley region around Porto. Today, Cale became Gaia (Vila Nova de Gaia), a city on the other side of the river. Many think that both cities should merge into one, due to their closeness and historical relation.
    [edit]

    Early history

    The region of present-day Portugal has been inhabited for at least 500,000 years, first by Neanderthals and then by homo sapiens.

    In the early first millennium BCE, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from central Europe and intermarried with the local Iberian people, forming the Celtiberian ethnic group, with many tribes, such as the Lusitanians, the Calaicians or Gallaeci and the Cynetes or Conii (amongst other less significant tribes such as the Bracari, Celtici, Coelerni, Equaesi, Grovii, Interamici, Leuni, Luanqui, Limici, Narbasi, Nemetati, Paesuri, Quaquerni, Seurbi, Tamagani, Tapoli, Turduli, Turduli Veteres, Turdulorum Oppida, Turodi, and Zoelae).

    There were, in this broad period, some small semi-permanent commercial coastal establishments, founded by the Greeks and the Phoenicians-Carthaginians.
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    Roman Lusitania

    Main articles: Lusitania, Gallaecia, and Hispania

    Ruins of the Roman city of Conimbriga, destroyed by the invading barbarians. Some survivors established a new city in the north, Coimbra.
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    Ruins of the Roman city of Conimbriga, destroyed by the invading barbarians. Some survivors established a new city in the north, Coimbra.

    In 219 BCE, the first Roman troops invaded the Iberian Peninsula. Within 200 years, almost the entire peninsula was dominated, becoming part of the Roman Empire. The Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies.

    In Portuguese territory, the conquest started from the south, where the Romans found friendly natives, the Conii. Within several decades, the Romans had conquered the entire territory. In 194 BCE, a rebellion began in the north. The Lusitanians and other native tribes, under the leadership of Viriathus, successfully wrested control of all entire Portugal from the Romans. Viriathus was born in Lorica, current Loriga, in the Hermínius Mons, current Serra da Estrela, Portugal. Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail — the Lusitanians gained more and more territory. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed an ambassador sent by Viriathus, convincing him to kill his own leader. Viriathus was assassinated, and the resistance was soon over.

    Rome installed a colonial regime. During this period, Lusitania grew in prosperity and many Portuguese cities and towns were founded. In 27 BCE, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara (today's Braga).
    [edit]

    Germanic kingdoms

    Main article: Visigoth

    In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes, not all of them truly barbarians, invaded the peninsula, namely the Suevi, the Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and their allies, the Sarmatian Alans. Only the kingdom of the Suevi (Quadi and Marcomanni) would endure after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans. The Visigoths eventually conquered the Suevi kingdom and its capital city Bracara in 584–585.
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    Moorish rule and the Reconquista
    The Age of the Caliphs
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    The Age of the Caliphs

    In 711, the Islamic Moors (mainly Berber with some Arab) invaded the Iberian Peninsula, destroying the Visigothic Kingdom. Many of the ousted Gothic nobles took refuge in the unconquered north Asturian highlands. From there they aimed to reconquer their lands from the Moors: this war of reconquest is known as the Reconquista.

    In 868, Count Vímara Peres reconquered and governed the region between the Minho and Douro rivers. The county was then known as Portucale (i.e. Portugal).

    While it had its origins as a dependency of the Kingdom of León, Portugal occasionally gained de facto independence during weak Leonese reigns.

    Portugal gained its first de jure independence (as Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal) in 1065 under the rule of Garcia II. Due to feudal power struggles, Portuguese and Galician nobles rebelled. In 1072, the country rejoined León and Castile under Garcia II's brother Alphonso VI of Castile.
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    Affirmation of Portugal

    Main article: History of Portugal (1112-1279)

    In 1095, Portugal separated almost definitely from the Kingdom of Galicia, both under the rule of the Kingdom of Leon, just like Castile (Burgos). Its territories consisting largely of mountain, moorland and forest, were bounded on the north by the Minho, on the south by the Mondego.

    At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended his independence, merging the County of Portucale and the County of Coimbra. Henry declared independence for Portugal while a civil war raged between Leon and Castile.

    Henry died without reaching his aims. His son, Afonso Henriques, took control of the county. The city of Braga, the unofficial Catholic centre of the Iberian Peninsula, faced new competition from other regions. The lords of the cities of Coimbra and Porto (then Portucale) with the Braga's clergy demanded the independence of the renewed county.

    Portugal traces its national origin to 24 June 1128 with the Battle of São Mamede. Afonso proclaimed himself first Prince of Portugal and in 1139 the first King of Portugal. By 1143, with the assistance of a representative of the Holy See at the conference of Zamora, Portugal was formally recognized as independent, with the prince recognized as Dux Portucalensis. In 1179, Afonso I was declared, by the Pope, as king. After the Battle of São Mamede, the first capital of Portugal was Guimarães, from which the first king ruled. Later, when Portugal was already officially independent, he ruled from Coimbra.

    Main article: The Consolidation of the Monarchy in Portugal

    From 1249 to 1250, the Algarve was finally reconquered by Portugal from the Moors. In 1255, the capital shifted to Lisbon.

    Portugal has always been turned towards the sea; its land-based boundaries are notably stable. The border with Spain has remained almost unchanged since the 13th century. A 1373 treaty of alliance between England and Portugal remains in effect to this day with the United Kingdom. Since early times, fishing and overseas commerce have been the main economic activities. Henry the Navigator's interest in exploration together with some technological developments in navigation made Portugal's expansion possible and led to great advances in geographic knowledge.
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    Discoveries Odyssey: Glory of the Empire
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    Main article: Portugal in the period of discoveries

    Sculpture on the Discoveries Age and Portuguese navigators in Lisbon, Portugal
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    Sculpture on the Discoveries Age and Portuguese navigators in Lisbon, Portugal

    During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal eclipsed most other nations in terms of economic, political, and cultural influence and it had an extensive empire throughout the world.

    July 25, 1415 marked the beginning of the Portuguese Empire, when the Portuguese Armada along with King John I and his sons Prince Duarte (future king), Prince Pedro, Prince Henry the Navigator and Prince Afonso, also with the legendary Portuguese hero Nuno Alvares Pereira departed to Ceuta in North Africa, a rich trade Islamic centre. On August 21, the city was conquered by Portugal, and the long-lived Portuguese Empire was founded. Further steps were taken which expanded the Empire even more.

    In 1418 two of the captains of Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven by a storm to an island which they called Porto Santo ("Holy Port") in gratitude for their rescue from the shipwreck. In 1419, João Gonçalves Zarco disembarked on Madeira Island. Between 1427 and 1431, most of the Azorean islands were discovered.

    In 1434, Gil Eanes turned the Cape Bojador, south of Morocco. The trip marked the beginning of the Portuguese exploration of Africa. Before the turn, very little information was known in Europe about what lay around the cape. At the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, those who tried to venture there became lost, which gave birth to legends of sea monsters. Some setbacks occurred: in 1436 the Canaries were recognized as Castilian by the Pope; earlier they were recognized as Portuguese. Also, in 1438 in a military expedition to Tangier, the Portuguese were defeated.
    Bartolomeu Dias turning the Tormentas Cape, renamed Cabo da Boa Esperança (Cape of Good Hope), representing Portugal's hope of becoming a powerful and rich empire by reaching India.
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    Bartolomeu Dias turning the Tormentas Cape, renamed Cabo da Boa Esperança (Cape of Good Hope), representing Portugal's hope of becoming a powerful and rich empire by reaching India.

    However, the Portuguese did not give up their exploratory efforts. In 1448, on a small island known as Arguim off the coast of Mauritania, an important castle was built, working as a feitoria (a trading post) for commerce with inland Africa, some years before the first African gold was brought to Portugal, circumventing the Arab caravans that crossed the Sahara. Some time later, the caravels explored the Gulf of Guinea which lead to the discovery of several uninhabited islands: Cape Verde, Fernão Poo, São Tomé, Príncipe and Annobón. Finally, in 1471, the Portuguese captured Tangier, after years of attempts. Eleven years later, the fortress of São Jorge da Mina in the Gulf was built. In 1483, Diogo Cão reached the Congo River.

    In 1484, Portugal officially rejected Christopher Columbus's idea of reaching India from the west, because it was seen as unreasonable, although there have been claims by historians which were based on historical facts, that the Portuguese may have already calculated the true size of the world, thus knowing that reaching the Indies from the west would require a far longer journey than navigating in east's direction. Other supported theories say that Columbus, besides from being Portuguese, was also a spy working for the Portuguese crown and was only trying to distract the Spanish from the East Indies trade routes, not only this but despite the Portuguese refusal of Columbus proposition, it has been claimed by many historians, according mostly to historial clues and some proof, that the Portuguese may have discovered Brazil before that, being as early as 1480. Nevertheless, none of these statements has been fully prooved, thus resulting in a continuous debates that still takes on nowadays. This began a long-lasting dispute which eventually resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain in 1494. The treaty divided the (largely undiscovered) world equally between the Spanish and the Portuguese, along a north-south meridian line 370 leagues (1770 km/1100 miles) west of the Cape Verde islands, with all lands to the east belonging to Portugal and all lands to the west to Spain.

    A remarkable achievement was the turning of the Cape of Good Hope by Bartholomew Diaz (Bartolomeu Dias) in 1487; the richness of India was now nearby, hence the name of the cape. In 1489, the King of Bemobi gave his realms to the Portuguese king and became Christian. Between 1491 and 1494, Pêro de Barcelos and João Fernandes Lavrador explored North America. At the same time, Pêro da Covilhã reached Ethiopia. Vasco da Gama sailed for India, and arrived at Calicut on May 20, 1498, returning in glory to Portugal the next year. The Monastery of Jerónimos was built, dedicated to the discovery of the route to India. In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral sighted the Brazilian coast; ten years later, Afonso de Alburquerque conquered Goa, in India.

    João da Nova discovered Ascension in 1501 and Saint Helena 1502; Tristão da Cunha was the first to sight the archipelago still known by his name 1506. In East Africa, small Islamic states along the coast of Mozambique, Kilwa, Brava and Mombasa were destroyed or became subjects or allies of Portugal.
    The arrival of the Portuguese in Japan, the first who managed to reach it, initiating the Nanban ("southern barbarian") period of active commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West.
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    The arrival of the Portuguese in Japan, the first who managed to reach it, initiating the Nanban ("southern barbarian") period of active commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West.

    The two million Portuguese people ruled a vast empire with many millions of inhabitants in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. From 1514, the Portuguese had reached China and Japan. In the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, one of Cabral's ships discovered Madagascar (1501), which was partly explored by Tristão da Cunha (1507); Mauritius was discovered in 1507, Socotra occupied in 1506, and in the same year D. Lourenco d'Almeida visited Ceylon.

    In the Red Sea, Massawa was the most northerly point frequented by the Portuguese until 1541, when a fleet under Estevão da Gama penetrated as far as Suez. Hormuz, in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Alfonso d'Albuquerque (1515), who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia.

    On the Asiatic mainland the first trading-stations were established by Cabral at Cochin and Calicut (1501); more important, however, were the conquest of Goa (1510) and Malacca (1511) by Albuquerque, and the acquisition of Diu (1535) by Martim Afonso de Sousa. East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam (now Thailand) in 1511, and dispatched to the Moluccas two expeditions (1512, 1514), which founded the Portuguese dominion in the Malay Archipelago. Fernão Pires de Andrade visited Canton in 1517 and opened up trade with China, where in 1557 the Portuguese were permitted to occupy Macao. Japan, accidentally reached by three Portuguese traders in 1542, soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries. In 1522, one of the ships in the expedition that Ferdinand Magellan organized in the Spanish service completed the first voyage around the world.

    By the end of the 15th century, Portugal expelled some local Jews, along with those refugees that came from Castile and Aragon after 1492. In addition, many Jews were forcibly converted to Catholicism and remained as Conversos. Many Jews remained secretly Jewish, in danger of persecution by the Portuguese Inquisition. Many of the merchant Jews who fled reached such prominence in commerce that for centuries a "Portuguese" abroad was presumed a Jew of Portuguese descent.

    In 1578, a very young king Sebastian died in battle without an heir (the body was not found), leading to a dynastic crisis. The Cardinal Henry became ruler, but died two years after. Portugal was worried about the maintenance of its independence and sought help to find a new king. Because Philip II of Spain was the son of a Portuguese princess, Spain invaded Portugal and the Spanish ruler became Philip I of Portugal in 1580; the Spanish and Portuguese Empires were under a single rule. Impostors claimed to be King Sebastian in 1584, 1585, 1595 and 1598. "Sebastianism", the myth that the young king will return to Portugal on a foggy day has prevailed until modern times.
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    Decline of the Empire

    After the 16th century, Portugal gradually saw its wealth decreasing. Even if Portugal was officially an autonomous state, the country was under the rule of the Spanish monarchy from 1580 to 1640, and Portuguese colonies were attacked by Spain's opponents, especially the Dutch and English.

    At home, life was calm and serene with the first two Spanish kings; they maintained Portugal's status, gave excellent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and Portugal maintained an independent law, currency and government. It was even proposed to move the Spanish capital to Lisbon. Later, Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province, and Portuguese nobles lost power. Because of this, on December 1, 1640, the native king, John IV, was acclaimed, and a Restoration war against Spain was made. Ceuta governors would not accept the new king; they maintained their allegiance to Spain.

    In the 17th century the Portuguese emigrated in large numbers to Brazil. By 1709, John V prohibited emigration, since Portugal had lost a sizable fraction of its population. Brazil was elevated to a vice-kingdom and Amerindians gained total freedom.
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    Pombaline Era

    Main articles: Portugal from the Restoration to the 1755 Earthquake and Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal

    In 1738, Sebastião de Melo, the talented son of a Lisbon squire, began a diplomatic career as the Portuguese Ambassador in London and later in Vienna. The Queen consort of Portugal, Archduchess Maria Anne Josefa of Austria, was fond of de Melo; and after his first wife died, she arranged the widowed de Melo's second marriage to the daughter of the Austrian Field Marshal Leopold Josef, Count von Daun. King John V of Portugal, however, was not pleased and recalled de Melo to Portugal in 1749. John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I of Portugal was crowned. In contrast to his father, Joseph I was fond of de Melo, and with the Queen Mother's approval, he appointed de Melo as Minister of Foreign Affairs. As the King's confidence in de Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state.

    By 1755, Sebastião de Melo was made Prime Minister. Impressed by British economic success he had witnessed while Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in the Portuguese colonies in India; reorganized the army and the navy; restructured the University of Coimbra, and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal.

    But Sebastião de Melo's greatest reforms were economic and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity. He demarcated the region for production of port to ensure the wine's quality, and his was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.

    Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of November 1, 1755, when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated Richter scale magnitude of 9. The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires. Sebastião de Melo survived by a stroke of luck and then immediately embarked on rebuilding the city, with his famous quote: What now? We bury the dead and feed the living.

    Despite the calamity, Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The new downtown of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions: They represent the world's first quake-proof buildings. Sebastião de Melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by designing an inquiry that was sent to every parish in the country.

    Following the earthquake, Joseph I gave his Prime Minister even more power, and Sebastião de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent. In 1758 Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. The Tavora family and the Duke of Aveiro were implicated and executed after a quick trial. The Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. Sebastião de Melo showed no mercy and prosecuted every person involved, even women and children. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy and ensured the victory of the Minister against his enemies. Based upon his swift resolve, Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in 1759.

    Following the Tavora affair, the new Count of Oeiras knew no opposition. Made Marquis of Pombal in 1770, he effectively ruled Portugal until Joseph I's death in 1779. His successor, Queen Maria I of Portugal, disliked the Marquis (See Tavora affair), and forbade him from coming within 20 miles of her, thus curtailing his influence.
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    Crises of the Nineteenth Century

    Main articles: History of Portugal (1777-1834) and History of Portugal (1834-1910)

    In 1807 Portugal refused Napoleon's demand to accede to the Continental System of embargo against the United Kingdom; a French invasion under Marshal Junot followed, and Lisbon was captured on 1 December 1807. British intervention in the Peninsular War restored Portuguese independence, the last French troops being expelled in 1812. The war cost Portugal the province of Olivença, now governed by Spain. Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, was the Portuguese capital between 1808 and 1821. 1820 saw constitutionalist insurrections at Oporto (August 24 and Lisbon (September 15). When Brazil declared its independence from Portugal in 1822, Lisbon regained its status as the capital of Portugal.

    The death of John VI in 1826 led to a crisis of royal succession. His eldest son, Peter I of Brazil briefly became Peter IV of Portugal, but neither the Portuguese nor the Brazilians wanted a unified monarchy; consequently, Pedro abdicated the Portuguese crown in favor of his seven-year-old daughter, Maria da Glória, on the condition that when of age she marry his brother, Miguel. Dissatisfaction at Pedro's constitutional reforms led the "absolutist" faction of landowners and the church to proclaim Miguel as king in February 1828. This led to the Liberal Wars in which Pedro, with British assistance, eventually forced Miguel to abdicate and go into exile in 1834, and placed his daughter on throne as Queen Maria II.
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    The First Republic

    Main article: Portuguese First Republic

    The First Republic has, over the course of a recent past, lost many historians to the New State. As a result, it's difficult to attempt a global synthesis of the republican period in view of the important gaps that still persist in our knowledge of its political history. As far as the October 1910 Revolution is concerned, a number of valuable studies have been made (Wheeler, 1972), first among which ranks Vasco Pulido Valente’s polemical thesis. This historian posited the Jacobin and urban nature of the revolution carried out by the Portuguese Republican Party (PRP) and claimed that the PRP had turned the republican regime into a de facto dictatorship (Pulido Valente, 1982). This vision clashes with an older interpretation of the First Republic as a progressive and increasingly democratic regime which presented a clear contrast to Salazar’s ensuing dictatorship (Oliveira Marques, 1991).

    A republican constitution was approved in 1911, inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament (Miranda, 2001). The Republic provoked important fractures within Portuguese society, notably among the essentially monarchist rural population, in the trade unions, and in the Church. Even the PRP had to endure the secession of its more moderate elements, who formed conservative republican parties like the Evolutionist party and the Republican Union. In spite of these splits the PRP, led by Afonso Costa, preserved its dominance, largely due to a brand of clientelist politics inherited from the monarchy (Lopes, 1994). In view of these tactics, a number of opposition forces were forced to resort to violence in order to enjoy the fruits of power. There are few recent studies of this period of the Republic’s existence, known as the ‘old’ Republic. Nevertheless, an essay by Vasco Pulido Valente should be consulted (1997a), as should the attempt to establish the political, social, and economic context made by M. Villaverde Cabral (1988).

    The PRP viewed the outbreak of the First World War as a unique opportunity to achieve a number of goals: putting an end to the twin threats of a Spanish invasion of Portugal and of foreign occupation of the colonies and, at the internal level, creating a national consensus around the regime and even around the party (Teixeira, 1996a). These domestic objectives were not met, since participation in the conflict was not the subject of a national consensus and since it did not therefore serve to mobilise the population. Quite the opposite occurred: existing lines of political and ideological fracture were deepened by Portugal’s intervention in the First World War (Ribeiro de Meneses, 2000). The lack of consensus around Portugal’s intervention in turn made possible the appearance of two dictatorships, led by General Pimenta de Castro (January-May 1915) and Sidónio Pais (December 1917-December 1918).

    Sidonismo, also known as Dezembrismo (Eng. Decemberism), aroused a strong interest among historians, largely as a result of the elements of modernity that it contained (José Brandão, 1990; Ramalho, 1998; Ribeiro de Meneses, 1998, Armando Silva, 1999; Samara, 2003 and Santos, 2003). António José Telo has made clear the way in which this regime predated some of the political solutions invented by the totalitarian and fascist dictatorships of the 1920s and 1930s (Teixeira, 2000, pp. 11-24). Sidónio Pais undertook the rescue of traditional values, notably the Pátria (Eng. Homeland), and attempted to rule in a charismatic fashion. A move was made to abolish traditional political parties and to alter the existing mode of national representation in parliament (which, it was claimed, exacerbated divisions within the Pátria) through the creation of a corporative Senate, the founding of a single party (the National Republican Party), and the attribution of a mobilising function to the Leader. The State carved out an economically interventionist role for itself while, at the same time, repressing working-class movements and leftist republicans. Sidónio Pais also attempted to restore public order and to overcome, finally, some of the rifts of the recent past, making the Republic more acceptable to monarchists and Catholics.

    The vacuum of power created by Sidónio Pais’ murder (Medina, 1994) on 14 December 1918 led the country to a brief civil war. The monarchy’s restoration was proclaimed in the north of Portugal on 19 January 1919 and, four days later, a monarchist insurrection broke out in Lisbon. A republican coalition government, led by José Relvas, coordinated the struggle against the monarchists by loyal army units and armed civilians. After a series of clashes the monarchists were definitively chased from Oporto on 13 February 1919. This military victory allowed the PRP to return to government and to emerge triumphant from the elections held later that year, having won the usual absolute majority.

    It was during this restoration of the ‘old’ Republic that an attempted reform was carried out in order to provide the regime with greater stability. In August 1919 a conservative President was elected – António José de Almeida (whose Evolutionist party had come together in wartime with the PRP to form a flawed, because incomplete, Sacred Union) – and his office was given the power to dissolve Parliament. Relations with the Holy See, restored by Sidónio Pais, were preserved. The President used his new power to resolve a crisis of government in May 1921, naming a Liberal government (the Liberal party being the result of the postwar fusion of Evolutionists and Unionists) to prepare the forthcoming elections. These were held on 10 July 1921 with victory going, as was usually the case, to the party in power. However, Liberal government did not last long. On 19 October a military pronunciamento was carried out during which – and apparently against the wishes of the coup’s leaders – a number of prominent conservative figures, including Prime Minister António Granjo, were assassinated. This event, known as the ‘night of blood’ (Brandão, 1991) left a deep wound among political elites and public opinion. There could be no greater demonstration of the essential fragility of the Republic’s institutions and proof that the regime was democratic in name only, since it did not even admit the possibility of the rotation in power characteristic of the elitist regimes of the nineteenth century.

    A new round of elections on 29 January 1922 inaugurated a fresh period of stability, since the PRP once again emerged from the contest with an absolute majority. Discontent with this situation had not, however, disappeared. Numerous accusations of corruption, and the manifest failure to resolve pressing social concerns wore down the more visible PRP leaders while making the opposition’s attacks more deadly. At the same time, moreover, all political parties suffered from growing internal faction-fighting, especially the PRP itself. The party system was fractured and discredited (Lopes, 1994; João Silva, 1997). This is clearly shown by the fact that regular PRP victories at the ballot box did not lead to stable government. Between 1910 and 1926 there were forty-five governments. The opposition of presidents to single-part governments, internal dissent within the PRP, the party’s almost non-existent internal discipline, and its constant and irrational desire to group together and lead all republican forces made any government’s task practically impossible. Many different formulas were attempted, including single-party governments, coalitions, and presidential executives, but none succeeded. Force was clearly the sole means open to the opposition if it wanted to enjoy the fruits of power (Schwartzman, 1989; Pinto, 2000).

    By the mid-1920s the domestic and international scenes began to favour another authoritarian solution, wherein a strengthened executive might restore political and social order. Since the opposition’s constitutional route to power was blocked by the various means deployed by the PRP to protect itself, it turned to the army for support. The armed forces, whose political awareness had grown during the war, and many of whose leaders had not forgiven the PRP for sending it to a war it did not want to fight, seemed to represent, to conservative forces, the last bastion of ‘order’ against the ‘chaos’ that was taking over the country. Links were established between conservative figures and military officers, who added their own political and corporative demands to the already complex equation. The pronunciamento of 28 May 1926 enjoyed the support of most army units and even of most political parties. As had been the case in December 1917, the population of Lisbon did not rise to defend the Republic, leaving it at the mercy of the army (Ferreira, 1992a). There are few global and up-to-date studies of this turbulent third phase of the Republic’s existence (Marques, 1973; Telo, 1980 & 1984). Nevertheless, much has been written about the crisis and fall of the regime and the 28 May movement (Cruz, 1986; Cabral, 1993; Rosas, 1997; Martins, 1998; Pinto, 2000; Afonso, 2001). The First Republic continues to be the subject of an intense debate which is impossible to summarise in these paragraphs. A recent historiographical balance sheet elaborated by Armando Malheiro da Silva (2000) is a good introduction into this debate. Nevertheless, one can distinguish three main interpretations. For some historians, the First Republic was a progressive and increasingly democratic regime. For others, it was essentially a prolongation of the liberal and elitist regimes of the nineteenth century. A third group, finally, chooses to highlight the regime’s revolutionary, Jacobin, and dictatorial nature.
    [edit]

    New State (Estado Novo)

    Main article: Estado Novo (Portugal).


    The neutrality of this section is disputed.
    Please see the discussion on the talk page.

    Political chaos, several strikes, harsh relations with the Church, and considerable economic problems aggravated by a disastrous military intervention in the First World War led to the military 28th May 1926 coup d'état, installing the Second Republic that would later become the Estado Novo in 1933, led by António de Oliveira Salazar, which transformed Portugal into a proto-Fascist Axis-leaning state, which later evolved into some mixture of single party corporative regime. India invaded and annexed Portuguese India in 1961. Independence movements also became active in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea, and a series of colonial wars started.

    Not all who dispute the near-universally negative view historians have taken of this period are sympathizers with the later Fascistic regime (saudosistas). However, most agree that Salazar and Caetano's corporative regime installed by the military coup d'état of 1926 was a repressive dictatorship, though the regime was slowly trying to democratize and to solve the problems of the colonies. Portugal, never an outcast, was a founding member of OECD, NATO and EFTA.

    After the death of Salazar in 1970, his replacement by Marcelo Caetano offered a certain hope that the regime would open up, the primavera marcelista (Marcelist spring), however the colonial wars in Africa continued, political prisoners remained incarcerated, freedom of association was not restored, censorship was only slightly eased and the elections remained tightly controlled. The regime retained its characteristic traits: censorship, corporativeness, with a market economy dominated by a handful of economical groups, continuous surveillance and intimidation of all sectors of society through the use of a political police and techniques instilling fear, such as arbitrary imprisonment, systematic political persecution, and assassination.

    The largely symbolic opening up of the 70s was meant to reduce social pressures generated by poor living conditions and to send a positive signal to the international community from which Portugal had been marginalized.

    The solutions envisioned for the colonies, called ultramarine provinces following the French precedent, it is said it was to remove the concept of colony and the idea of Portugal from Minho to East Timor.
    [edit]

    The Third Republic

    Main articles: History of Portugal (1974-1986), History of Portugal (1986-2000), and Portugal in the 2000s

    The Carnation Revolution of 1974, an effectively bloodless left-wing military coup, installed the Third Republic. Broad democratic reforms were implemented. In 1975, Portugal granted independence to its Overseas Provinces (Províncias Ultramarinas in Portuguese) in Africa (Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe). In that same year, Indonesia invaded and annexed the Portuguese province of Portuguese Timor (East Timor) in Asia before independence could be granted. The Asian dependency of Macao, after an agreement in 1986, was returned to Chinese sovereignty in 1999. Portugal applied international pressure to secure East Timor's independence from Indonesia, as East Timor was still legally a Portuguese dependency, and recognized as such by the United Nations. After a referendum in 1999, East Timor voted for independence and Portugal recognized its independence in 2002.
    Treaty of Accession of Portugal to the European Communities
    Enlarge
    Treaty of Accession of Portugal to the European Communities

    With the 1975–76 independence of its colonies (except Macao, because it hadn't any independence movement), the 560 year old Portuguese Empire had already effectively ended. With it, 15 years of war effort also came to an end. Also many Portuguese returned from the colonies, coming to comprise a sizeable sector of the population and starting an economic recovery, thus opening new paths for the country's future just as others closed. In 1986, Portugal entered the European Economic Community and joined the Euro in 1999.
    [edit]

    Timeline

    Main article: Timeline of Portuguese history

    * Paleolithic
    o Modern humans make way into the Iberian peninsula, coming from Southern France.
    o Extinction of the Neanderthal Man in its last refuge - Portugal.
    o Pre-historic art in the Valley of Foz Côa.
    * Mesolithic
    o The European population, sheltered in Iberia due to the Ice Age, migrates and recolonizes all of Western Europe during the Allerød Oscillation.
    * Neolithic
    o Development of Agriculture in Iberia.
    o Beginning of the Megalithic European culture.
    * Bronze Age
    o First wave of Indo-European migrations into Iberia, of the Urnfield culture (Proto-Celts).
    o Bronze culture of the Castro Villages in the Northwest of Iberia (modern Galicia and northern Portugal); Bronze culture of Portuguese Estremadura; Bronze culture of Portuguese Beira Alta; Emergence of Tartessos in Andalusia.
    * Iron Age
    o Phoenician colonization and influence of Mediterranean Iberia.
    o Tartessian civilization in southern Iberia
    o Emergence of towns and cities in the southern coastal areas of western Iberia.
    o Second wave of Indo-European migration into Portuguese territory (Celts of the Hallstatt culture).
    o Greek colonization and influence in eastern Iberia.
    o First forms of writing in Portugal, the Southwest script, part of the Tartessian script.
    o A new wave of Celts (of the La Tène culture) establish themselves in Alentejo.
    o The Lusitanians inhabit central Portugal, the Calaicians or Gallaeci northern Portugal, the Celtici are in Alentejo and the Conii are in the Algarve.
    * Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia
    o 218 BC - Invasion of Iberia by the Roman Republic as part of the offensive against Carthage during the Second Punic War.
    o 200 BC-150 BC - Several Lusitanian rebellions against Roman conquest.
    o 147 BC-139 BC - Lusitanian War against the Romans under the command of Viriathus.
    o 137 BC - The Romans conquer Gallaecia.
    o 114 BC - Praetor Gaius Marius is governor of Lusitania; the Lusitanians resist with a long guerrilla war.
    o 83 BC-72 BC- Quintus Sertorius Hispanic revolt, where he is joined by the Lusitanians.
    o 61 BC-60 BC - Julius Caesar is Propraetor governor of Lusitania and defeats rebelious Lusitanians and Gallaecians.
    o 27 BC - The Roman Emperor Augustus creates the province of Lusitania (till then part of Hispania Ulterior), with capital in Emerita Augusta (currently Mérida). Originally Lusitania included the territories of Asturias and Gallaecia.
    o 23 BC - The emperor Augustus establishes the Principate and the Pax Romana.
    o c. 250 - Braga becomes an Episcopal Diocese.
    o 366-383 - Damasus, son of Antonius and Laurentia, born in the Conventus Bracarensis of Gallaecia (near the modern city of Guimarães), is the reigning Pope under the name Damasus I.
    o 388 - Paternus becomes bishop of the Episcopal see of Braga.
    * Germanic Kingdoms
    o 409
    + Invasion of the NW of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Gallaecia) by the Germanic Suevi (Quadi and Marcomanni) under king Hermerico.
    + Invasion of the Iberian peninsula by the Germanic Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and the Sarmatian Alans.
    o 415 - Invasion of the Iberian peninsula by the Germanic Visigoths lead by King Theodorid.
    o 429 - The Vandals and the Alans move to North Africa.
    o 468 - Lusídio, Roman governor of Lisbon, delivers the city to the Suevi.
    o 470 - King Euric of the Visigoths conquers southern Gallaecia and Lusitania to the Suevi.
    o 562 - Saint Martin of Dumes becomes Bishop of Braga.
    o 585 - Andeca, the last king of the Suevi, helds out for a year before surrendering in to the Visigothic King Leovigild. With his surrender, this branch of the Suevi vanished into the Visigothic kingdom.
    * Al'Garb Al'Andalus and the beginning of the Reconquista
    o 711 – Islamic Umayyad Moors (mainly Berber with some Arab), under Tariq ibn-Ziyad, invade and eventually conquer the Iberian Peninsula (Visigothic King Roderic is killed while opposing the invasion), except from the northernmost part - the Asturias.
    o 718 - Pelayo establishes the Kingdom of Asturias. This is considered to be the beginning of the Reconquista.
    o 722 - A powerful Moorish force sent to conquer Asturias once and for all is defeated by king Pelayo at the Battle of Covadonga. Today, this is regarded as the first significant Christian victory of the Reconquista.
    o 755 - Abd ar-Rahman I of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Iberia to escape the Abbasids.
    o 756 - The Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I defeats Yusuf al-Fihri and becomes Commander of al-Andalus Muslims, proclaiming himself Emir of Cordoba.
    o 791 - Alfonso II becomes King of Asturias in Oviedo and conquers a number of Moorish strongholds and settles the lands south of the Douro River.
    o 798 - In a raid on Muslim lands, Alfonso II of Asturias enters Lisbon but can not occupy it.
    o 800 - 10 year Rebellion againsts the Muslims breaks out in the fringes of Al-Andalus (Lisbon, Mérida, Toledo). Each rebellion is bloodily suppressed by the central Islamic authorities.
    o 844 - Vikings raid the Galician estuaries, are defeated by Ramiro I of Asturias, attack Lisbon, Beja and the Algarve, and sack Seville.
    o 866 - Alfonso III the Great, son of Ordonho I of Asturias, becomes King of Asturias. He initiates the repopulation of Porto, Coimbra, Viseu and Lamego.
    * First County of Portugal
    o 868 - Establishment of the 1st County of Portugal, a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Asturias, by count Vímara Peres, after the reconquest from the Moors of the region between the Minho and Douro Rivers.
    o 878 - The region of Coimbra (today, Central Portugal) is incorporated in the Kingdom of Asturias by the Count Hermenegildo Guterres.
    o 910 - Ordonho II becomes King of Galicia with the support of the Count of Portugal.
    o 913 - An expedition commanded by Ordonho II, then vassal king of Galicia, into Muslim territory takes Évora from the Muslims.
    o 925 - Ramiro II, son of Ordonho II of León, was the first to bear the title King of Portuguese Land.
    o 926 - The Umayyad Emir Abd al-Rahman III, faced with the threat of invasion by the Fatimids, proclaims himself Caliph of Córdova.
    o 938 - First document where the word Portugal is written in its present form.
    o 976 - Caliph Al-Hakam II dies, and Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir takes over in the name of his protégé Hisham II, becoming a military dictator usurping caliphal powers and lauching a big number of offensive campaignes against the Christians.
    o 1031 - The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls. Many Taifas (independent Moorish kingdoms) begin to spring up.
    o 1056 - The Almoravides (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power.
    o 1063 - Ferdinand I of Castile-León divides his kingdom among his sons. Galicia is allotted to his son Garcia.
    o 1065 - Independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal is proclaimed under the rule of Garcia II of Galicia.
    o 1071 - Garcia II of Galicia becames the first to use the title King of Portugal, when he defeates, in the Battle of Pedroso (near Braga), Count Nuno Mendes, last count of Portugal of the Vímara Peres House.
    o 1072 - Loss of independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal, forcibly reannexed by Garcia II's brother, king Alfonso VI of Castile.
    o 1090 - Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin cames to Iberia and conquers all the Taifas.
    o 1094 - Almoravid Sir ibn Abi Bakr takes Badajoz and Lisbon.
    o 1095 - The Almoravides take Santarém.
    * Second County of Portugal
    o 1095 - Establishment of the 2nd County of Portugal (Condado Portucalense), by Count Henry of Burgundy, who marries princess Teresa of León.
    o 1112 – Afonso Henriques inherits the County of Portugal, a fiefdom of the Kingdom of León.
    o 1128 – Count Afonso Henriques defeats his mother, Teresa of León, that governs the county after her husband's death with the title of Regina (Queen), in the Battle of São Mamede and becomes sole ruler (Dux - Duke) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles.
    * First Dynasty: Burgundy
    o 1139 July 26 – Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravides lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Duke Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, king of Portugal.
    o 1143 – Treaty of Zamora. Alfonso VII of Leon and Castille recognizes the Kingdom of Portugal with the assistance of the Holy See who recognizes Alphonso as the ruler of Portugal, but the church did not wanted a division in Hispania in an era of crusades against the Moors so it did not recognize him as king.
    o 1179 – Pope Alexander III recognizes Afonso I as King, thus Portugal becomes officially a kingdom.
    o 1095–1279 A Portuguese kingdom was established independent from León and extended southwards until it reached its present continental limits.
    o 1279–1383 The monarchy was gradually consolidated in spite of resistance from the Church, the nobles and the rival kingdom of Castile.
    o 1383-1385 – Civil war and political anarchy: 1383-1385 Crisis.
    * Second Dynasty: Aviz
    o 1385
    + João I of Portugal acclaimed king by the Portuguese; Castilians do not accept this claim.
    + Battle of Aljubarrota: João I defeats the Castilians and secures the throne.
    o 1386 - Treaty of Windsor (between Portugal and England), an alliance between England and Portugal.
    o 1394 – Henry the Navigator, son of king João I of Portugal, is born.
    o 1415–1499 - A period of crusades and discoveries.
    o 1494 - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed between Portugal and Spain, divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the two Iberian kingdoms.
    o 1498 - Vasco da Gama discovers the sea-route to India.
    o 1500 - Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brasil
    o 1499–1580 - The Portuguese Empire stretches from Brasil eastward to the Moluccas, reaching the zenith of its prosperity and entering a period of swift decline.
    o 1580 - Dynastic crisis of the 16th century.
    * Third Dynasty: Habsburg (Spanish rule)
    o 1581–1640 - Spanish kings ruled over Portugal in a personal union of the Crowns. Portugal loses de facto independence to Spain.
    * Fourth Dynasty: Bragança
    o 1640 – The Duke of Braganza becomes king João IV of Portugal. Restoration of Portuguese Independence and end of Spanish control.
    o 1755 – The Lisbon earthquake destroys the city to the ground; an enormous tsunami wave washes away what remained standing.
    o 1750-1777 - Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal rules Portugal as Prime Minister of King Joseph I of Portugal.
    o 1807-1814 - Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, invades Portugal. The Portuguese Royal Family is transferred to the colony of Brasil. An Anglo-Portuguese Army, commanded by sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, resists French occupation during the Peninsular War.
    o 1820 - Portugal demandes the return of King João VI of Portugal to Lisbon.
    o 1822 - Brasil declares independence. Pedro, son of King João VI of Portugal, becomes Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.
    o 1826 – Emperor Pedro I of Brazil also becomes King Pedro IV of Portugal.
    o 1828 – Miguel, King Pedro IV of Portugal's brother, is proclaimed Absolute King Miguel I of Portugal, rival to Pedro IV. Beginning of the Portuguese Liberal Wars.
    o 1834 - End of the Portuguese Liberal Wars. Miguel I of Portugal is exiled to Germany. Portugal becomes a Constitutional Monarchy.
    o 1890 - Emergence of a strong Portuguese Republicanism movement.
    * First Republic
    o 1910 - The Republican Revolution, supported by popular uprising and virtually no resistance, is victorious and puts an end to the Portuguese Monarchy. The last King of Portugal, Manuel II of Portugal, and the Portuguese Royal Family, embark for exile in England. The Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon.
    o 1916–1918 - Portugal contributes to the Great War on the Allies' side.
    * Second Republic: Authoritarian Estado Novo
    o 1926 - The 28th May military coup d'état puts an end to the 1st Republic of Portugal. Establishment of the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship).
    o 1928 - António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance. General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona is President of the Republic.
    o 1932 - António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Prime Minister.
    o 1933
    + A new Constitution is approved in a false referendum, defining Portugal as a Corporative, Single Party and Multi-continental country (in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania).
    + A Conservative Authoritarian regime entitled Estado Novo is installed.
    + The Single Party União Nacional (National Union) is created.
    + The Estatuto do Trabalho Nacional (Code of National Labour) is published, prohibiting all free trade unions.
    + A Political Police, the PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado; State Defense and Vigilance Police) is created.
    + Censorship, particularly of the Mass media, is systematic and generalized.
    o 1936-1939 - During the Spanish Civil War, Portugal promptly supportes Nationalist Spain under General Francisco Franco and sends military aid (the Battalion of the Viriatos) in their fight against the Spanish Republicans.
    o 1939-1945 - During World War II Portugal remains neutral.
    o 1949 - Portugal is a founding member of NATO.
    o 1954 - The Dadra and Nagar Haveli enclave of Portuguese India, dependent of Daman, is occupied by India.
    o 1960 - Portugal is one of the founding member of the EFTA - European Free Trade Association.
    o 1961
    + The Portuguese Colonial War starts in Angola, it will spread, in the years to come, to Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea (today Guinea-Bissau).
    + The Indian army conquers Portuguese Goa and Daman and Diu, in Portuguese India.
    o 1968
    + António de Oliveira Salazar leaves the Government due to health problems.
    + Marcello das Neves Alves Caetano becomes Prime Minister.
    o 1970
    + Death of António de Oliveira Salazar.
    + Portugal invades Conakry, in the Republic of Guinea.
    * Third Republic: Democracy
    o 1974 - The Carnation Revolution of the 25 April puts an end to five decades of authoritarian dictatorship.
    o 1975 - Independence is granted to all Portuguese colonies in Africa and promised to East Timor (which is violently annexed by Indonesia).
    o 1986 - Portugal joins the European Communities (EEC later EU).
    o 1999
    + Macao, the last overseas Portuguese colony, is returned to China.
    + Indonesia ceases its occupation of East Timor.
    o 2002 - Portugal adopts the euro as currency.

    [edit]

    See also

    LMAO. basicaly discovered half the world.

  2. #22
    Senior Member Ronan's Avatar
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    .................................................. .................................................. .................................................. .................................................. .................................................. .................................................. ................................................ok kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

    scotland invented vaccines, light bulb and tv (i think)
    Oh and the kaleidascope

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  3. #23
    Controversial. DRMARIO's Avatar
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    Was all that random informatio about portugal necessary o.O

    Enoch was right.


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    Only took 4 years to get1 MetroidZ's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by DRMARIO
    Was all that random informatio about portugal necessary o.O
    yes, just trying to educate the uneducated jk (does that sound familiar or is it just me?)

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    Senior Member Ronan's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by MetroidZ
    yes, just trying to educate the uneducated jk (does that sound familiar or is it just me?)
    you know i think someone else might have said that
    Portugal has really kicked ass! (and im not just talking about beating england either!, thanks for that by the way )

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    Bringer of meaty goodness DBloke's Avatar
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    That post was a copy pasta


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    Senior Member Napalmbrain's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Darkprinny
    That post was a copy pasta
    Sure is, it's Wikipedia's history of Portugal article. Even the "neutrality disputed" comment is still in it.

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    King K.Rool Icetrash's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Ezekiel86
    Perth, Western Australia

    The most isolated capital in the world, I'm guessing outisders don't really know what to expect when they come here. It might be the most isolated but it has a massive urban sprawl, and it's gonna keep sprawling! (for those who dont know, urban sprawl means how far out the city stretches, so by massive urban sprawl I mean... go figure :P )

    We've got a little bit of most parts of the world here, we have alot of Asian restraunts, a Swedish hotel, a gothic nightclub (and they play good music ) There's strong undercurrent of Italian culture (although it's slowly seeping out due to the influence of Asian cultures) and as being part Italian I suppose I feel somewhat connected to it...

    We have a rail system that connects the main metropolis (where I live) to the rural parts of the state, which is good fun to travel on. Additionally there are numerous bus connecting even the most remote parts of WA which are nice.

    Politically, theres a massive diversity of opinions, but there's a strong left-wing following here, as well as some underground political groups which are always up to something. But for the most part, no ones really too fussed, as we consider ourselves to be on the outlands of the international community, probably one of the safest countries to be in aswell at the moment (apart from that atrocious drive-by mosque shooting in the past week).

    That's about all I have to say about Perth for now!
    Yeah I live where he lives ^^^. And you know whats funny, Im part Italian to, maybe are Nonnas know each other...

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    Komio-Wii komio's Avatar
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    wow... i feel like i just took some history classes haha ( didnt read all about portugal but glassgow sounds like my kind of place ill have to visit there) im in the united states, im from Oklahoma, but i live in california, near palm springs ( about an hour from los angles) california keeps getting hotter and hotter and dry as where oklahoma was nice weather and there was alot of moisture in the air so that was the only down side

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    Senior Member Ronan's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by komio
    wow... i feel like i just took some history classes haha ( didnt read all about portugal but glassgow sounds like my kind of place ill have to visit there) im in the united states, im from Oklahoma, but i live in california, near palm springs ( about an hour from los angles) california keeps getting hotter and hotter and dry as where oklahoma was nice weather and there was alot of moisture in the air so that was the only down side
    Calafornia?, ill swap with you!

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